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Guide To Fiber Optic Splice Closure

Fiber optic splice closure is usually used with outdoor fiber optic cables, provides space for the outdoor fiber optic cables to be spliced together. The fiber optic splice closures and the fiber trays inside will protect the spliced fiber and the joint parts of the outdoor fiber cables. Generally the fiber optic splice closures are dome type and horizontal types, and Horizontal Fiber optic Splice Closure is used more often.

Structure Of Fiber Splice Closures
The fiber splice closures are made from special industrial grade, high tension plastic with a reliable moisture barrier. They are also optimized to resist aging of the material due to factors in the natural environment such as ultraviolet light.

There are two main types of closures, fiber optic and fiber optic terminal. A closure is hardware used to restore integrity of fiber cables entering the enclosure. The terminal is a hardened external connector that allows the addition of one or more fiber cables to the enclosure. These two categories can be configured as butt closures and in-line closures. The butt closure allows cables to enter from one end, while the in-line allows entry from both ends. Both the butt closures and in-line closures can be one of the following types:

Fiber Optic Splice Closures Key Features:

The box add aging-resistant in imported high tensile construction plastic out-faster is made up of stainless steel;
Overlap structure in splicing tray easy to install;
Suitable for ordinary fiber and ribbon fiber;
Perfect leak proofness and fine function;
Perfect and reliable sealing operations;
Fiber-bending radium guaranteed more than 40mm;
Full accessories for convenient operations;
Fiber optic splice closure can be used repeatedly;
High reliability;
For aerial, and direct buried applications.

Fiber Optic Splice Closure Types

For outside plant splice closure, there are two major types: horizontal type and vertical type.

1) Horizontal type

Horizontal type splice closures look like flat or cylindrical case. They provide space and protection for optical cable splicing and joint. They can be mounted aerial, buried, or for underground applications. Horizontal types are used more often than vertical type (dome type) closures.

Most horizontal fiber closure can accommodate hundreds of fiber connections. They are designed to be waterproof and dust proof. They can be used in temperature ranging from -40°C to 85°C and can accommodate up to 106 kpa pressure. The cases are usually made of high tensile construction plastic, are widely used in CATV, telecommunications and fiber optic networks.

2) Vertical Type

Vertical type of fiber optic splice closures looks like a dome, thus they are also called dome fiber optic splice closure. They meet the same specification as the horizontal types. They are designed for buried applications.

Vertical fiber optic splice closures are made of excellent engineering plastics, they are with 1inlet/outlet ports, 2inlet/outlet ports, 3inlet/outlet ports types, fitting different fiber optic core numbers. The vertical fiber optic splice closure is used in CATV, telecommunications and fiber optic networks.

Fiber splice closures accept both Ribbon Cable and round fiber cables. Each type (ribbon or round cable) fits respective requirement of different fiber splicing counts. They are widely used in optic telecommunication systems. JFOPT offers fiber optic splice closure, vertical, horizontal, dome, from 2 cores to 240 cores maximum, with inside fiber optic splice trays accessories like fusion splice sleeves.

Related fiber products visit at jfcable.com and jfopt.es

Detail Of Single Mode And Multi Mode Fiber Optic Cable

Fiber optic cable has become apparent that fiber-optics are steadily replacing copper wire as an appropriate means of communication signal transmission. They span the long distances between local phone systems as well as providing the backbone for many network systems. Other system users include cable television services, university campuses, office buildings, industrial plants, and electric utility companies.

There are three types of fiber optic cable commonly used:  single mode, multimode and plastic optical fiber (POF).  Although fibers can be made out of transparent plastic, glass, or a combination of the two, the fibers used in long-distance telecommunications applications are always glass, because of the lower optical attenuation.  Both multi-mode and single-mode fibers are used in communications, if you need to transmit less data over longer distances, use single mode fiber optic cables. For a greater data capacity over shorter distances, go with multi mode fiber optic cables, with multi-mode fiber used mostly for short distances (up to 500 m),Multi mode is often used for LANs and other small networks. And single-mode fiber used for longer distance links.

Single Mode Fiber: Single Path through the fiber

Single Mode cable is a single stand (most applications use 2 fibers) of glass fiber with a diameter of 8.3 to 10 microns that has one mode of transmission.  Single Mode Fiber with a relatively narrow diameter, through which only one mode will propagate typically 1310 or 1550nm. Carries higher bandwidth than multimode fiber, but requires a light source with a narrow spectral width.  Single Mode is also referred to as single-mode fiber, single-mode optical waveguide, mono-mode optical fiber and uni-mode fiber. Single-mode fiber gives you a higher rate of transmission, it also can carry the signal up to 50 times farther distance than multimode, at a slightly higher cost.Single-mode fiber has a much smaller core than multimode.

Single Mode fiber is used to connect long distance switches, central offices and SLCs (subscriber loop carriers, small switches in pedestals in subdivisions or office parks or in the basement of a larger building). Practically every telco’s network is now fiber optics except the connection to the home.

Multi Mode Fiber: Multiple Paths through the fiber

Multi-Mode cable has a little bit bigger diameter, with a common diameters in the 50-to-100 micron range for the light carry component (in the US the most common size is 62.5um).Typical multimode fiber core diameters are 50, 62.5, and 100 micrometers.  Multi Mode fiber is used for shorter distances. Most applications in which Multi-mode fiber is used, 2 fibers are used. Multimode fiber gives you high bandwidth at high speeds (10 to 100MBS – Gigabit to 275m to 2km) over medium distances. Light waves are dispersed into numerous paths, or modes, as they travel through the cable’s core typically 850 or 1300nm. Long cable runs (Above 3000 feet 914.4 meters in length), the multiple paths of light are believed to cause signal distortion at the receiving end, resulting in lost packets and incomplete data transmission. IPS recommends the use of single mode fiber in all applications using Gigabit and higher bandwidth.

What Is Fiber Optical Connectors

Fiber optic connectors, detachable (active) device connected between the fiber and the fiber, the two fiber end face precision docking up to launch the optical output of light energy to maximize the coupling to the receiving fiber,and because of its involvement in the optical link system impact be minimized, which is the basic requirements for fiber optic connectors. To a certain extent, fiber optic connectors affect the reliability and the performance of optical transmission systems.

Fiber Optic Connector is an important components used in the fiber optic network. It is also the key part used in fiber optic patch cord and fiber optic pigtail. There are many kinds of fiber optic connectors.we supply one piece fiber optic connectors various types, including standard connectors and irregular types, epoxy types. And fiber optic types include: SC fiber optic connector, FC fiber optic connector, ST fiber optic connector,LC fiber optic connector,MU fiber optic connector, SC/APC fiber optic connector, FC/APC fiber optic connector, etc. both Single mode fiber optic connector and multimode fiber optic connector available.

There are Single mode fiber optic connector and Multimode fiber optic connector, Single mode fiber optic connectors can be with PC, or UPC or APC polish, while Multimode fiber optic connectors only with PC or UPC polish. PC or UPC or APC refer to how we polish the ferrule of the fiber optic connectors. Judging from the out looking, Multimode connectors are usually with black boot or beige color, Single mode PC and UPC ones are usually with blue or black color, Single mode APC is with green color. Insertion loss is important technical data of the fiber optic connectors. The smaller the better. APC insertion loss is smaller than UPC, UPC is smaller than PC.

Fiber optical connectors are used to join optical fibers where a connect/disconnect capability is required. There are many types of connectors, the commonly types are LC, SC, FC, ST, MU, E2000.

LC is Lucent Connect or Little Connector or Local Connector. Its ferrule diameter is 1.25mm based on standard of IEC 61754-20. They are often found on small form-factor pluggable transceivers.

SC is Subscriber Connector or square connector or standard connector. Its ferrule diameter is 2.5mm and based on the standard of IEC 61754-4. SC connectors offer excellent packing density and their push-pull design reduces the chance of fiber end face contact damage during connection; frequently found on the previous generation of corporate networking gear, using GBICs.

FC long form is ferrule connector or fiber channel. FC connector has same ferrule diameter as SC but standard (IEC-61754-13). FC connectors need to be mated more carefully than the push-pull types due to the need to align the key, and due to the risk of scratching the fiber end face while inserting the ferrule into the jack. FC connectors have been replaced in many applications by SC and LC connectors.

ST long form is straight tip. The ferrule diameter is 2.5mm and according to standard IEC 61754-2. ST has a key which prevents rotation of the ceramic ferrule, and a bayonet lock similar to a BNC shell.

MU (Miniature unit Coupling) connector is the SC connector is currently the most used based on the developed world’s smallest single-core optical fiber connector, developed by NTT.

More source of fiber optic connectors, please visit at http://www.jfiberoptic.com

Fbt Coupler Fiber Optic Patch Cables And Dwdm Sfp Transceiver

Fiber optic splitter is used to split the fiber optic light into several parts at a certain ratio. We use fiber optic splitter to distribute or combine optical signals in many applications, such as FTTH solution, etc. Fiber optic splitters are important passive components used in FTTX networks. Fiber optic splitters can be terminated with different kinds of connectors, the main package could be box type or stainless tube type, one is usually used with 2mm or 3mm outer diameter cable, the other is usually used with 0.9mm outer diameter cables.

Two kinds of fiber splitters are popular used, one is the traditional fused type fiber optic splitter (FBT coupler), which features competitive prices; the other is PLC fiber optic splitter, which is compact size and suit for density applications. Both of them have its advantages to suit for different requirement. FBT Couplers are designed for power splitting and tapping telecommunication equipment, CATV networks, and test equipment. These components are available individually or integrated into modules for fiber protection switching, MUX/DMUX, optical channel monitoring, and add/drop multiplexing applications.

Major differences between PLC splitters and FBT Coupler

1. Technology behind FBT Coupler and PLC splitter.
FBT coupler: Fused Biconical Taper, this is traditional technology to weld several fiber together from side of the fiber.
PLC splitter: Planar Lightwave Circuit is a micro-optical components product, the use of lithography, the semiconductor substrate in the medium or the formation of optical waveguide, to achieve
branch distribution function.

2. Disadvantages and advantages between FBT and PLC.
PLC splitter FBT coupler
SpliSplit Ratio (Max) 1*64 splits 1*4 splits
EveEveness Can split light evenly Eveness is not very precise
SizeSizeSize Compact size Big size for multi splits

Fiber Patch Cable also known as fiber jumper or fiber patch cord, which is a fiber optic cable terminated with fiber optic connectors on both ends. There are two major application areas of Fiber
Patch Cable: computer work station to outlet and fiber optic patch panels or optical cross connect distribution center. Fiber optic patch cables are for indoor applications only. Single-mode fiber
Patch cable is primarily used for applications involving extensive distances. Multimode fiber optic patch cord, however, is the cable of choice for most common local fiber systems as the devices for multimode are far cheaper.

Jfiberoptic Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) Small Form-Factor Pluggable (SFP) is available in all 100 GHz C-band wavelengths on the DWDM ITU grid. They are designed to Multi-Source Agreement (MSA) standards to ensure broad network equipment compatibility. As multirate interfaces they support any protocol from 100 Mbps to 4.25 Gbps. DWDM SFP transceivers provide the high speeds and physical compactness that today’s networks require while delivering the deployment flexibility and inventory control that network administrators demand. The 1.25G DWDM SFP transceivers are small form factor pluggable modules for bi-directional serial optical data communications such as 4x/2x/1x Fibre Channel, SDH/SONET, Ethernet applications. We supply 1.25G DWDM SFP modules are hot pluggable and digital diagnostic functions area vailable via an I2C serial bus specified in the SFP MSA SFF-8472. The DWDM SFP transceiver has undergone rigorous qualification and certification testing to provide End-to-End Compatibility using switching equipment from CISCO, BROCADE, JUNIPER, ALCATEL, HP (select models), NORTEL, EMC, QLOGIC and other OEMs.

Fiber optic patch cord info from http://www.jfiberopt.com

Corning introduced advanced optical components for data center

Pretium EDGE AO solutions to similar parallel optical solution 33% higher density to help implement parallel optical technology to 40 g / 100 g of migration

Corning corporation recently announced a set of oriented Pretium EDGE solutions platform of optical components products – Pretium EDGE AO (advanced optical) solution. These components can help data center to its economic and efficient way cable infrastructure easily migrated to the next generation of more advanced applications, including parallel optical technology and integration of network monitoring.

Parallel optical Pretium EDGE AO solution is composed of switching module and fiber optic jumper, it in the network to 40 g migration can fully use 12 core optical fiber backbone, 40 g using 8 core optical fiber backbone (in each direction has four optical fibers with 10 g speed transmission). If there is no this kind of transfer, the existing fiber optic backbone running 40 g parallel optical fiber data centers use only about 66% of the fiber has been installed.

Due to the application of the resistance to bending, corning ClearCurve multimode fiber Pretium EDGE AO solutions to achieve the industry’s highest density of parallel optical frame; Its density is equivalent to the current Pretium EDGE10G solution, the density of at least 33% higher compared with other parallel optical solutions. Due to the port density with 10 g solutions now, the end user in a migration to a higher data rate without increasing the system hardware. Will be moved to 40 g or higher rate of customer is expected to achieve a good return on investment, because they can after migration full use of its existing fiber optic backbone and hardware.

Once submitted review 4 x25g IEEE 802.3 bm Ethernet standard approved (in each direction has four optical fibers with 25 g speed transport), due to the switching module and fiber optic jumper can continue to used to transport 100 g Pretium EDGE AO solution will be 100 g additional return on investment for the user.

As part of the Pretium EDGE AO solutions, corning also launched the industry’s first integrated port divider module, used for Ethernet 40 gbase – SR4 multimode fiber parallel optical circuit implementation of network monitoring. This passive tap device can be directly integrated into the Pretium EDGE solutions for infrastructure, and it all – the MTP adapter can support 40G seamless migration of electronic equipment. Divider with corning other integration of port module, this integration method of corning allowed under the premise of not interfere with the real-time network connection increase or dismantle the monitored port, and to achieve “zero U” footprint, improve the utilization rate of frame.

Source: fiber optic components

AFL unveils NOYES FOCIS PRO for fiber-optic connector inspection

AFL has unveiled the NOYES FOCIS PRO family of automatic fiber inspection systems. The fiber optic connector inspection systems automate the process of analyzing and documenting fiber connector cleanliness and integrity.

Designed for field inspection tasks, FOCIS PRO offers optical resolution and detection specifications that exceed current international standards, AFL asserts. The units’ software-based applications are upgradeable, which prolongs the FOCIS PRO units’ useful lifespans.

A FOCIS PRO System consists of the DFD1 Touchscreen Tablet, the DFS1 Digital FiberScope, and the new SimpleView PRO software. The units can help technicians center a fiber image; identify critical core, cladding, adhesive, and contact zones, and detect and record the types of defects found. Technicians can analyze a typical fiber in under five seconds, AFL asserts. Meanwhile, the unit’s Zoom/Pan feature and large display enable users to identify the smallest particles, scratches, and imperfections, the company adds.

The systems benefit from a patent-pending paired image feature designed to enable users to make immediate fiber cleanliness comparisons. Users can capture and save up to 1,000 fiber images, review images on-site, and share images via USB memory sticks or SD flash cards.

All of AFL’s FOCIS units can be upgraded to the functionality of FOCIS PRO.

“As network vendors pursue higher data rates associated with the substantial growth in data traffic, the demand for exceptional performance of network systems is becoming more and more crucial,” explained Bill Thompson, marketing director for AFL’s fiber optic test equipment division. “Simply stated, it is imperative that fibers are clean and free from defects. AFL’s FOCIS PRO system delivers a solution that supports these demanding requirements.”

The History of Fiber Optics

Fiber optics, though used extensively in the modern world, is a fairly simple, and relatively old, technology. Guiding of light by refraction, the principle that makes fiber optics possible, was first demonstrated by Daniel Colladon and Jacques Babinet in Paris in the early 1840s. John Tyndall included a demonstration of it in his public lectures in London, 12 years later. Tyndall also wrote about the property of total internal reflection in an introductory book about the nature of light in 1870: “When the light passes from air into water, the refracted ray is bent towards the perpendicular… When the ray passes from water to air it is bent from the perpendicular… If the angle which the ray in water encloses with the perpendicular to the surface be greater than 48 degrees, the ray will not quit the water at all: it will be totally reflected at the surface…. The angle which marks the limit where total reflection begins is called the limiting angle of the medium. For water this angle is 48°27′, for flint glass it is 38°41′, while for diamond it is 23°42′.” Undigested human hairs have also been shown to act as an optical fiber.

Practical applications, such as close internal illumination during dentistry, appeared early in the twentieth century. Image transmission through tubes was demonstrated independently by the radio experimenter Clarence Hansell and the television pioneer John Logie Baird in the 1920s. The principle was first used for internal medical examinations by Heinrich Lamm in the following decade. Modern optical fibers, where the glass fiber is coated with a transparent cladding to offer a more suitable refractive index, appeared later in the decade. Development then focused on fiber bundles for image transmission. Harold Hopkins and Narinder Singh Kapany at Imperial College in London achieved low-loss light transmission through a 75 cm long bundle which combined several thousand fibers. Their article titled “A flexible fiberscope, using static scanning” was published in the journal Nature in 1954. The first fiber optic semi-flexible gastroscope was patented by Basil Hirschowitz, C. Wilbur Peters, and Lawrence E. Curtiss, researchers at the University of Michigan, in 1956. In the process of developing the gastro scope, Curtiss produced the first glass-clad fibers; previous optical fibers had relied on air or impractical oils and waxes as the low-index cladding material.

A variety of other image transmission applications soon followed.

In 1880 Alexander Graham Bell and Sumner Tainter invented the ‘Photo phone’ at the Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.C., to transmit voice signals over antical beam. It was an advanced form of telecommunications, but subject to atmospheric interferences and impractical until the secure transport of light that would be offered by fiber-optical systems. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, light was guided through bent glass rods to illuminate body cavities. Jun-ichi Nishizawa, a Japanese scientist at Tohoku University, also proposed the use of optical fibers for communications in 1963, as stated in his book published in 2004 in India. Nishizawa invented other technologies that contributed to the development of optical fiber communications, such as the graded-index optical fiber as a channel for transmitting light from semiconductor lasers. The first working fiber-optical data transmission system was demonstrated by German physicist Manfred Börner at Telefunken Research Labs in Ulm in 1965, which was followed by the first patent application for this technology in 1966. Charles K. Kao and George A. Hockham of the British company Standard Telephones and Cables (STC) were the first to promote the idea that the attenuation in optical fibers could be reduced below 20 decibels per kilometer (dB/km), making fibers a practical communication medium. They proposed that the attenuation in fibers available at the time was caused by impurities that could be removed, rather than by fundamental physical effects such as scattering. They correctly and systematically theorized the light-loss properties for optical fiber, and pointed out the right material to use for such fibers — silica glass with high purity. This discovery earned Kao the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2009.

NASA used fiber optics in the television cameras sent to the moon. At the time, the use in the cameras was classified confidential, and only those with the right security clearance or those accompanied by someone with the right security clearance were permitted to handle the cameras.

The crucial attenuation limit of 20 dB/km was first achieved in 1970, by researchers Robert D. Maurer, Donald Keck, Peter C. Schultz, and Frank Zima working for American glass maker Corning Glass Works, now Corning Incorporated. They demonstrated a fiber with 17 dB/km attenuation by doping silica glass with titanium. A few years later they produced a fiber with only 4 dB/km attenuation using germanium dioxide as the core dopant. Such low attenuation ushered in optical fiber telecommunication. In 1981, General Electric produced fused quartz ingots that could be drawn into fiber optic strands 25 miles (40 km) long.
Attenuation in modern optical cables is far less than in electrical copper cables, leading to long-haul fiber connections with repeater distances of 70–150 kilometers (43–93 mi). The erbium-doped fiber amplifier, which reduced the cost of long-distance fiber systems by reducing or eliminating optical-electrical-optical repeaters, was co-developed by teams led by David N. Payne of the University of Southampton and Emmanuel Desurvire at Bell Labs in 1986. Robust modern optical fiber uses glass for both core and sheath, and is therefore less prone to aging. It was invented by Gerhard Bern see of Schott Glass in Germany in 1973.

The emerging field of photonic crystals led to the development in 1991 of photonic-crystal fiber, which guides light by diffraction from a periodic structure, rather than by total internal reflection. The first photonic crystal fibers became commercially available in 2000. Photonic crystal fibers can carry higher power than conventional fibers and their wavelength-dependent properties can be manipulated to improve performance.

Source: fiber optic cable manufacturer

What will happen if fiber cable is smaller than its minimum bend radius?

Bending a fiber cable over its MBR is one of the biggest factors in fiber damage in projects to install fiber cables. This practice can break the fibers inside or increase fiber attenuation (fiber power loss) than the manufacturer’s specifications. Although the internal fibers are already broken, you can not see any physical damage to the outer skin at all. As a result, you must replace the entire section or even the entire length of the cable. As a good practice, all fibers must be thoroughly tested after cable installation. More info from jiafu fiber optic cable manufacturer

Find more fiber optic products, like fiber optic cables, fiber optic patch cord, fiber optic patch panel, fiber optic test equipment, visit our website http://www.jfiberoptic.com.

 

Single Fiber Optic Cable Sets New World Record

The National Institute of Information and Communications in Tokyo has achieved a world speed record of sending 109 terabits per second over a single fiber optic cable. The optical fiber cable the team used contained a single fiber with seven “light-guiding cores,” whereas a regular fiber optic cable contains a single core. Each core managed to carry 15.6 terabits per second.

Tim Strong of TeleGeography Research says that the new record speed is far beyond the world’s current capacity, as the total capacity of one of the world’s busiest routes, between New York and Washington D.C., is only a few terabits per second, a speed dwarfed by the 109 terabits per second record. Strong does point out, however, that traffic has been growing 50 percent each year for the past few years.

The runner-up record-setter, Dayou Qian, achieved a speed of 101.7 terabits per second using a method that employed 370 separate lasers, each one carrying a small amount of information, but combining to form a large, single data transfer sent down 165 kilometers of fiber optics.

Though these speeds aren’t practically applied anywhere as of yet, it’s not a stretch to think huge data centers may be using these methods of data transfer soon, as we live in a world dominated by the Internet, and companies like Google and Amazon are gigantic and show no signs of slowing down anytime soon. 7DNG2S92MQHH

Source: fiber optic cable supplier

Disadvantages of Fiber Optics?

The science of fiber optics has its advantages and disadvantages. Though there are more advantages than disadvantages, they still are there. One of the largest disadvantages is the overall price of manufacturing and installation of the fiber optic system. Not only is a large amount of glass wire needed for one of these systems, but expensive transmitters and receivers are needed to move the data it carries. Setting up the wires and splicing them also comes at a large expense and also with a great degree of difficulty.

Related fiber optics products:
Fiber optical cables, fiber optic patch cord, fiber optic pigtail