How does a fiber optic cable work?

A fiber-optic cable is composed of many very thin strands of coated glass or plastic fibers that transmit light through the process of “cladding,” in which total internal reflection of light is achieved by using material that has a lower refractive index. Once light enters the fiber, the cladding layer inside it prevents light loss as the beam of light zigzags inside the glass core. Glass fibers can transmit messages or images by directing beams of light inside itself over very short or very long distances up to 13,000 miles (20,917 kilometers) without significant distortion. The pattern of light waves forms a code that carries a message. At the receiving end, the light beams are converted back into electric current and decoded. Uses include telecommunications medical fiber-optic viewers, such as endoscopes and fiberscopes, to see internal organs; fiber-optic message devices in aircraft and space vehicles; and fiber-optic connections in automotive lighting systems.

Fiber-optic cables have greater “bandwidth”: they can carry much more data than metal cable. Because fiber optics is based on light beams, the transmissions are more impervious to electrical noise and can also be carried greater distances before fading. The cables are thinner than metal wires. Fiber-optic cable delivers data in digital code instead of an analog signal, the delivery method of metal cables; computers are structured for digital, so there is a natural symbiosis. The main disadvantage is cost: fiber optics are much more expensive than traditional metal cable.

To understand how a fiber optic cable works, imagine an immensely long drinking straw or flexible plastic pipe. For example, imagine a pipe that is several miles long. Now imagine that the inside surface of the pipe has been coated with a perfect mirror. Now imagine that you are looking into one end of the pipe. Several miles away at the other end, a friend turns on a flashlight and shines it into the pipe. Because the interior of the pipe is a perfect mirror, the flashlight’s light will reflect off the sides of the pipe (even though the pipe may curve and twist) and you will see it at the other end. If your friend were to turn the flashlight on and off in a morse code fashion, your friend could communicate with you through the pipe. That is the essence of a fiber optic cable.

Related fiber optic cables – fiber optic patch cord, also called fiber optic patch cable, is a fiber optic cable terminated with fiber optic connectors on both ends. It has two major application areas: computer work station to outlet and fiber optic patch panels or optical cross connect distribution center. Fiber optic patch cables are for indoor applications only.

What is the difference between a single mode and multi mode fiber optic connector?

There are 2 major differences one color code. single mode will be white or yellow. multimode will be black or tan. 2nd the hole in the connector ferrel for the fiber. fiber is 125 microns. in a single mode connector the opening is 126 microns. multimode is 127/128.
Single Mode cable is a single strand (most applications use 2 fibers) of glass fiber with a diameter of 8.3 to 10 microns that has one mode of transmission. Single Mode Fiber with a relatively narrow diameter, through which only one mode will propagate typically 1310 or 1550nm. Carries higher bandwidth than multimode fiber, but requires a light source with a narrow spectral width. Synonyms mono-mode optical fiber, single-mode fiber, single-mode optical waveguide, uni-mode fiber.
Single Modem fiber is used in many applications where data is sent at multi-frequency (WDM Wave-Division-Multiplexing) so only one cable is needed – (single-mode on one single fiber)
Single-mode fiber gives you a higher transmission rate and up to 50 times more distance than multimode, but it also costs more. Single-mode fiber has a much smaller core than multimode. The small core and single light-wave virtually eliminate any distortion that could result from overlapping light pulses, providing the least signal attenuation and the highest transmission speeds of any fiber cable type.

Single-mode optical fiber is an optical fiber in which only the lowest order bound mode can propagate at the wavelength of interest typically 1300 to 1320nm.
Multi-Mode cable has a little bit bigger diameter, with a common diameters in the 50-to-100 micron range for the light carry component (in the US the most common size is 62.5um). Most applications in which Multi-mode fiber is used, 2 fibers are used (WDM is not normally used on multi-mode fiber). POF is a newer plastic-based cable which promises performance similar to glass cable on very short runs, but at a lower cost.
Multimode fiber gives you high bandwidth at high speeds (10 to 100MBS – Gigabit to 275m to 2km) over medium distances. Light waves are dispersed into numerous paths, or modes, as they travel through the cable’s core typically 850 or 1300nm. Typical multimode fiber core diameters are 50, 62.5, and 100 micrometers. However, in long cable runs (greater than 3000 feet [914.4 meters), multiple paths of light can cause signal distortion at the receiving end, resulting in an unclear and incomplete data transmission so designers now call for single mode fiber in new applications using Gigabit and beyond.

Multimode& Singlemode fiber are the five types of fiber in common use. Both fibers are 125 microns in outside diameter – a micron is one one-millionth of a meter & 125 microns is 0.005 inches- a bit larger than the typical human hair. Multimode fiber has light travelling in the core in lots of rays, called modes. It’s a bigger core (always 62.5 microns, but sometimes 50 microns) & is used with LED sources at wavelengths of 850 & 1300 nm for slower local area networks (LANs) & lasers at 850 & 1310 nm for networks jogging at gigabits per second or more. Singlemode fiber has a much smaller core, only about 9 microns, so that the light travels in one ray. It is used for telephony & CATV with laser sources at 1300 & 1550 nm. Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) is large core (about 1mm) fiber that can only be used for short, low speed networks.
Step index multimode was the first fiber design but is slow for most makes use of, due to the dispersion caused by the different path lengths of the various modes. Step index fiber is rare – only POF makes use of a step index design today.
Graded index multimode fiber makes use of variations in the composition of the glass in the core to compensate for the different path lengths of the modes. It offers hundreds of times more bandwidth than step index fiber – up to about 2 gigahertz.
Singlemode fiber shrinks the core down so small that the light can only travel in one ray. This increases the bandwidth to infinity – but it is practically limited to about 100,000 gigahertz – that is still a lot!

Multimode& Singlemode fiber are the five types of fiber in common use. Both fibers are 125 microns in outside diameter – a micron is one one-millionth of a meter & 125 microns is 0.005 inches- a bit larger than the typical human hair. Multimode fiber has light travelling in the core in lots of rays, called modes. It’s a bigger core (always 62.5 microns, but sometimes 50 microns) & is used with LED sources at wavelengths of 850 & 1300 nm for slower local area networks (LANs) & lasers at 850 & 1310 nm for networks jogging at gigabits per second or more. Singlemode fiber has a much smaller core, only about 9 microns, so that the light travels in one ray. It is used for telephony & CATV with laser sources at 1300 & 1550 nm. Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) is large core (about 1mm) fiber that can only be used for short, low speed networks.
Step index multimode was the first fiber design but is slow for most makes use of, due to the dispersion caused by the different path lengths of the various modes. Step index fiber is rare – only POF makes use of a step index design today.
Graded index multimode fiber makes use of variations in the composition of the glass in the core to compensate for the different path lengths of the modes. It offers hundreds of times more bandwidth than step index fiber – up to about 2 gigahertz.
Singlemode fiber shrinks the core down so small that the light can only travel in one ray. This increases the bandwidth to infinity – but it is practically limited to about 100,000 gigahertz – that is still a lot!

Source: fiber cable manufacturer

Fiber Optic Patch Cable Buying Guide

Fiber optic patch cords are fiber optic cables used to attach one device to another for signal routing. It compresses in the entire electric network plank and room that wall plank and the flexibility cabinet needs. And today I would like to introduce you fiber optic patch cable.

fiber optic patch cable is with the fiber optic connectors, are upgrade version of the former MPO. MTP is with better mechanical and better performance compared with MPO. Both the MTP and MPO series cables are multi fiber connectors. There are many fiber optic channels in each single connector. Due to the feature of such multi fiber, these connectors need to use with multi fiber cables, especially the ribbon multi fiber optic cables.

Typical MTP/MPO fiber optic patch cord assemblies like MTP/MPO to 8 LC, MTP/MPO to 12 MT-RJ ,etc. Both single mode and multi-mode MPO ribbon patch cables are available and they are manufactured with various color-coded housings for easy identification. MPO fiber optic patch cord adopts precision molded MT ferrules, metal guide pins and appropriate housing to provide optical fiber alignment. The push-pull design is utilized for easy mating and removal.

MTP/MPO are usually used in ribbon fiber optic patch cords or ribbon fan out multi fiber assemblies. Made by multi-fiber ribbon materials, the MPO ribbon patch cable is an ideal connecting tool for telecommunication system, testing instruments, LAN and WAN systems, FTTX, etc. The MPO ribbon patch cable features removable housing, allowing easy replacement of pin clamps, ferrule clearing and connector repolishing. Connection integrity is assured by the spring-action side latch housing. The ribbon fiber optic cables features multi fiberglass inside each single jacket ,MTP/MPO are also multi fiberglass core inside each single connector, which means, there are several fiberglass connections in each single MTP/MPO fiber optic patch cord.

Jiafu fiber optic cable manufactures a full line of fiber optic patch cables. There are LC, SC, ST, FC, E2000, E2000, DIN, D4, SMA and DIN Fiber Optic Patch Cables, which classified by connector types. In addition to standard patch cords, JiaFu also provides several kinds of specialty patch cords, such as ribbon fan-out cords, MTP / MPO patch cords, mode conditioning patch cords, armored patch cord and water proof pigtails.

Through there are so many types of fiber optic patch cords, I am going to suggest you a buying guide to helping you select the correct fiber patch cable that meets your demand.

1.Choose fiber optic connectors ST, SC, LC, FC, SC/APC, LC/APC, FC/APC, FDDI, SMA, MTP, MPO, MTP/APC, MPO/APC.

2.Choose Fiber Mode, Single Mode 9/125µm OS1, Multimode 62.5/125µm OM1, Multimode 50/125µm OM2, Multimode 50/125µm OM3 10Gigabit, Multimode 50/125µm OM4, Multimode 100/140, Multimode, 200/230.

3.Choose Fiber Cable Construction Type, Simplex fiber optic cable (A single fiber), Duplex fiber optic cable (2 fibers in a single cable, Zip Cord), Multi-Fiber cables, custom configurations, common are 4 fiber, 6fiber, 8fiber, 12 fiber, 24 fiber, 48 fiber, 72 fiber, 144 fiber, 256 fiber. Higher fiber counts are normally terminated as a MTP/MPO Trunk cables, using MTP/MPO connectors.

4.Choose Fiber Cable Diameter, In stock/Most common are 3.0mm Jacket OD. Optional are 2.0mm, 1.8mm, 1.6mm.

5.Choose Fiber Optic Cable Jacket Color. Industry Standard fiber optic cable jacket colors are. SM Yellow, MM 62.5 Orange, MM 50 OM2 Orange, MM 50 10Gb OM3 Aqua/Light Blue, Optional are Blue, Orange, Green Brown, Gray/Slate, White, Red, Black, Yellow, Purple, Pink, Aqua.

6.Choose Jacket material type, PVC jacket, Riser jacket, Plenum Jacket, Armored Jacket.

7.Choose fiber patch cord length option, normally measured in Meters. Optional lengths, CM, mm, Inches, Foot, KM, Mile.

The Advantages And Disadvantages Of The PLC Optical Power Splitter

Planar optical waveguide technology is the optical waveguide branch devices with semiconductor process, the function of the shunt on the chip, to achieve the above shunt up to 1×32 on a chip, the chip at both ends, respectively, coupled to encapsulate the input and outputend multi-channel fiber array.

PLC fiber optic splitters are used to distribute or combine optical signals, which are based on planar lightwave circuit technology and provides a low cost light distribution solution with small form factor and high reliability.

The PLC fiber Splitter contains no electronics and uses no power. They are the network elements that put the passive in Passive Optical Network and are available in a variety of split ratios, including 1:4, 1:8, and 1:16, 1:32, 1:64 and 1:128 etc.

The main advantages:

(1) wear and tear on the transmission wavelength of light is not sensitive to meet the needs the transmission of different wavelengths.

(2) spectrophotometric uniform, the signal can be assigned to the user.

(3) The compact structure, small size, can be installed directly in a variety of transfer of the box, without specially designed to stay a great deal of installation space.

(4) single device shunt channel can reach more than 32.

(5) multi-channel, low cost, points more and more large ones, the more obvious cost advantage.

The main drawback:

(1) complex device fabrication process, high technical threshold, the current chip monopolized by several foreign companies, domestic enterprises to be able to the production of large quantities of packaging and only a small few.

(2) relative to the higher cost of fused cone splitter, especially in the low-channel splitter at a disadvantage.

Source: Fiber optic cable supplier, website: http://www.jfiberoptic.com

The method to Install Fiber Optic Connectors

Fiber optic cables have been instrumental in advancing technological communication. Fiber optics today stretch across oceans and bring Internet connection to remote locations. They provide more reliable service for land-line phones than traditional wires. Although their manufacture can be complex, you can install fiber optic connections very easily. The process involves gluing bare fiber optic cable to a connector and then heating the connector to seal it.

1. Strip the plastic jacket at the end of the fiber optic cable. Optic cable ends have jackets to prevent any damage in shipping from the manufacturer. Clamp the plastic jacket, using a fiber optic stripper tool, which has a designated slot to fit the size of a fiber optic jacket. Squeeze the handles of the stripper like pliers. Pull the jacket away from the fiber optic cable.
2. Open the back chamber of the epoxy glue gun by twisting off the back cap. Insert the epoxy glue tube into the chamber and squeeze lightly. You will only need a few ounces of glue for the task. Screw the cap back on the epoxy glue gun chamber.
3. Inject epoxy glue into the fiber optic connector socket. Each fiber optic connector has two sockets on each side of it to form the connection. Insert the glue gun into the connector socket. Press and hold the trigger to insert the glue. The glue should spot should not be larger than an eye pupil.
4. Insert one fiber optic cable end into the connector sockets. Hold the cable in the socket and count to 10. Let go of the fiber optic cable and connector. Check that the cable stays in position once you let go of it.
5. Place the new fiber optic connection into an an epoxy curing oven. Turn on the oven and turn the timer knob to six minutes. Insert the fiber optic connector attached to the cable into one of the curing oven slots. Press the start button on the oven. Pull out the connector from the oven slot. Wiggle the connector end to test the stability of the connection. If it seems fragile, reinsert the connector into the oven and cook it for a few more minutes. Repeat steps three to five to seal the fiber optic connector on both sides.

Fiber Optic Cable Repairing Method

Fiber optics can repaired by several methods. Splicing allows two fiber optic cables to be joined together. Splicing enables the joining of broken cables or two different types of cables, The process is done with fusion splicing or mechanical splicing.

Fusion Splicing

Fusion splicing joins two cable optic lengths together with electric arc welding. Fusion splices generally cost from $0.50 to $1.50 each (as of 2011). However the splicing machine costs from $15,000 to $50,000 depending upon the level of accuracy required.
Mechanical Splicing

Mechanical splicing is done with a device that fits between two cables being spliced and aligns the fiber ends. Mechanical splices cost between $12 and $50 each. However, the initial investment is $1,000 to $2,000. The choice of the method can be based upon precision. Fusion splicing provides lower feedback reflection and less loss of signal. Some companies use each method depending upon whether precision digital signals are being sent or less precise analog signals.

Patch Cable

In most cases, there will not be sufficient slack in a broken cable to allow splicing without additional cable. After determining that a patch cable will work in the system, a temporary length of cable can be mechanically spliced and laid on the ground if temperatures do not fall below freezing. Outdoor repairs should be done in a temporary shelter, such as a tent, if possible, to protect the work from the elements.

What Is the Difference Between Ethernet & Patch Cables?

Ethernet Is a Protocol

While eight-conductor Ethernet cables with RJ-45 plugs are extremely common (these are the cables that look like over-sized phone cords), Ethernet itself is a protocol standard that defines the way that bits of information travel over a particular medium. The two most common cabled versions of Ethernet are traditional copper cables and fiber-optic cables.

Patch Cables

Most standard copper Ethernet cables are referred to as patch cables. However, ordinary phone cords can be considered patch cables, as well as the RCA and HDMI cables that connect a home TV and stereo system together.

Types

Different Ethernet cables have different names, with “patch cables” being the most common. Some of the differences include the length of the cable as well as the purpose. For example, an Ethernet connection that is designed for speed and/or great distance can be referred to as a “backbone” or “long haul,” even though it may use the exact same type of copper cable that a patch cable uses.

The Difference Between Single Mode & Multimode Fiber Optic Connectors

Fiber optic cables are used in data communications such as telephone lines, cable television and broadband Internet. The cables consist of flexible transparent glass fibers that are connected to electronic devices with modulators. The modulators receive data from the sending device and encode it into light pulses made by LED transmitters in the cable connection. The LED sends the encoded light pulses from one end of the fiber to the other. At the other end of the cable, the light pulses are sent into a detector that converts the data back into it original format before sending it to the receiving device.

Fiber-Optic Connectors

Fiber-optic cables are connected with special connectors or spliced together. Fiber-optic connectors consist of a ferrule, a connector body and a coupling mechanism. The ferrule is a thin cylinder that holds the optic fiber in its hollowed-out center. Fiber-optic connectors can be made out of metal, plastic or ceramic. The connector body is made of plastic or metal. It holds the ferrule and connects to the outer jacket of the cable. The coupling mechanism is the body that holds the connector in place when it is attached to an electronics device. Fiber-optic connectors can be a push-and-click latch clip, a screw-in connector or a turn-and-latch bayonet-style nut connector.

Single Mode and Multimode

The mode of a fiber-optic cable is the path that data or light signals travel through. The core diameter of a multimode-fiber-optic cable is larger than a single-mode-fiber-optic cable. Single-mode cables allow a single wavelength and path for light to travel; multimode fiber is used to patch cable to a desktop or a patch panel to computers or televisions.

Single Mode Connectors

Single-mode connector boots are blue or white. The ferrule of the connector is often made out of zirconia, a type of ceramic. The single-mode ferrule has a smaller hole than the multimode ferrrule, which is not detectable by the naked eye.

Multimode Connectors

Multimode-connector boots are beige or black. The boot is the part of the connector that is covered by a sleeve where the fiber-optic cable ends. The ferrule of a multimode connector can be made out of stainless steel, plastic comp. osite or ceramic zirconia.