About Optical fiber

An optical fiber (or optical fibre) is a flexible, transparent fiber made of glass (silica) or plastic, slightly thicker than a human hair. It can function as a waveguide, or “light pipe”, to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber. The field of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibers is known as fiber optics. Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communications, which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than other forms of communication. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss and are also immune to electromagnetic interference. Fibers are also used for illumination, and are wrapped in bundles so that they may be used to carry images, thus allowing viewing in confined spaces. Specially designed fibers are used for a variety of other applications, including sensors and fiber lasers.

Optical fibers typically include a transparent core surrounded by a transparent cladding material with a lower index of refraction. Light is kept in the core by total internal reflection. This causes the fiber to act as a waveguide. Fibers that support many propagation paths or transverse modes are called multi-mode fibers (MMF), while those that only support a single mode are called single-mode fibers (SMF). Multi-mode fibers generally have a wider core diameter, and are used for short-distance communication links and for applications where high power must be transmitted. Single-mode fibers are used for most communication links longer than 1,050 meters (3,440 ft).

Joining lengths of optical fiber is more complex than joining electrical wire or cable. The ends of the fibers must be carefully cleaved, and then spliced together, either mechanically or by fusing them with heat. Special optical fiber connectors for removable connections are also available.

Network infrastructure among prime areas for IT investment

With many businesses facing pressure to make IT upgrades to support operational needs, budgets are rising and many companies are hiring more IT staff members. According to a recent CompTIA study, putting more resources into IT is a key trend for the next 12 months, during which network infrastructure will be a key area for spending.

According to the news source, the fundamental role of IT departments is beginning to change as more companies prioritize technology as a key business enabler. This is leading to more spending on IT infrastructure and heightened expectations for IT workers in general. Many companies are realizing that, with IT becoming more important, they need to invest more in strategic technologies.

Looking at IT investment strategies
Emerging technologies, like cloud computing, are among the key areas for IT investment, Tim Herbert, vice president of research for CompTIA, explained.

“”Emerging technologies such as cloud computing continue to see adoption gains as well,” said Herbert. “More than half of responding companies say they are either experimenting with or fully using cloud computing solutions.”

While cloud computing and similar solutions are gaining prominence, many organizations are focusing on more tried-and-true solutions. The study found that data storage, security, web services and network infrastructure are among the most prominent areas for investment during the next 12 months.

Drivers for network spending
Investing in new network equipment becomes a priority as companies begin to explore virtualization in the data center. Virtual architectures abstract the actual operating systems from the hardware, allowing multiple virtual machines to operate on a single server, even if the device only has one network port. As a result, data from 12 servers may be traveling through a single network port, leading to major bandwidth challenges. Advanced cabling systems and network virtualization can go a long way toward overcoming this issue.

Improving the core data center network is only part of the problem, as big data, cloud computing and a variety of other trends lead to more data not only being sent into and out of the data center, but between systems within facilities. As a result, organizations often need high-performance backhaul infrastructure. This often means fiber optic cables play an integral role in internal networks because emerging technologies are pushing data throughput requirements beyond what cable is ideally suited to handle. Strategic cabling investments can go a long way toward helping organizations support contemporary IT requirements.

LX.5 fiber optic patch cord feature and specification

The LX.5 was developed with carrier-class reliability to ensure network integrity. Available in simplex or duplex configurations, the LX.5 maintains single circuit access and incorporates safety shutters on both the connector and adapter body to provide protection from dust, dirt, and ferrule end-face handling damage. The LX.5  connector also features a latching mechanism that effectively releases the connector from the adapter. Its user-friendly and intuitive design prevents cables from snagging at the back of the connector.
LX.5 fiber optic patch cord
LX.5 Features:
Doubles the density; twice as many fiber connections
Exactly half the size of the SC connector; adapter fits the SC footprint
Shutters on both the adapter and connector
Incorporates proven, reliable ceramic ferrules
Available in singlemode and multimode versions
Easy to convert between simplex and duplex connectors

LX.5 Patch Cord Specifications:
Insertion loss (IL)  typical 0.2dB
Return loss (RL) >35dB for MM; >50dB for SM/UPC; >60dB for SM/APC
Ferrule material: 1.25mm zirconia ceramic
Adapter housing, connector body: Engineering thermoplastic

Application:
Telecom
LAN, WAN
CATV
Sensor Systems
Measuring Technique
Utilities, Railways

MPO fiber optic patch cable

The singlemode or multimode MPO fiber cable available from Jfiberoptic are multifiber connections used in high-density backplane and Printed Circuit Board (PCB) applications in data and telecommunications systems. The MPO fiber cable connector offers up to 12 times the density of standard connectors, providing significant space and cost savings.

MPO APC Fiber Optical Patch Cord

MPO fiber patch connectors utilize precision molded MT ferrules, with metal guide pins and precise housing dimensions to ensure fiber alignment when mating. The MPO fiber cable can be mass terminated in combinations of 4, 8, or 12 fiber ribbon cables.

MPO APC Single Mode Fiber Optical Patch Cord

Applications:
Patch cords and Fan-Out assemblies
ATM & DWDM high speed communication systems
Multimedia
CATV and Video
Data and Telecommunication Networks
Industrial

Standards
IEC 61754-7 „Fiber optic connectors interfaces – Type MPO connector family“
TIA/EIA 604-5A „Fiber optic intermateability standard – Type MPO“

Prysmian opens new fiber-optic cable plant in Romania

Cable maker Prysmian Group says it has a new fiber-optic cable production facility at its campus in Slatina, Romania. The new production capability will triple the factory’s fiber-optic cable capacity to 1.5 million km, with the potential to reach 3 million km.

Prysmian manufactures energy cable and copper cable as well as fiber cable at the 40-year-old Slatina factory, one of 24 production facilities the company operates worldwide. The site began producing fiber-optic cable in 2009. The plant comprises almost 100,000 m2 of space, 42,000 m2 of it covered, and employs more than 400 people.

“The investment in the new facility in Slatina is part of a major plan to further reinforce the Group’s competitiveness in this fast-changing market,” said Valerio Battista, CEO of the Prysmian Group. “Many developments are taking place in the current telecoms market. New players and services are appearing and evolution in broadband, double-play and triple-play services is dynamic. For this reason, as one of the major players in the telecom cable industry, Prysmian Group is continuously investing in this strategic sector in order to offer innovative technological solutions for the development of telecoms networks.”

Zayo boosts Indianapolis 500 small cell network with fiber-optic ring

Zayo Group reveals that it will deploy a dark fiber mobile backhaul infrastructure for a small cell wireless network at this year’s Indianapolis 500 in Indianapolis, IN. The fiber-optic network services provider already has installed a dark fiber ring for the track, which will improve wireless capacity and reliability during the race’s events. The fiber infrastructure will then remain in place to support mobile users.

The fiber optic cable will backhaul traffic from a distributed antenna system (DAS) deployed at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. The backhaul network includes a 23-mile fiber ring connecting an unidentified national carrier’s multiple points of presence and the speedway. Zayo asserts it completed the dark fiber ring in fewer than 90 days.

Zayo says it manages more than 540 fiber route miles in the Indianapolis metro area and supports service to more than 300 buildings on-net.

The Types of Fiber Optic Connector

Fiber optic connector is used to join optical fiber where a connect/disconnect capability is required. The basic connector unit is a connector assembly. A connector assembly consists of an adapter and two connector plugs. A variety of optical fiber connectors are available, but SC and LC connectors are the most common types of connectors on the market.

Different connectors are required for multimode, and for single-mode fibers. The example shown is a fiber ST connector. We supply professional fiber ST connetor sales. ST connector is the most popular connector for multimode networks, like most buildings and campuses. It has a bayonet mount and a long cylindrical ferrule to hold the fiber. Most ferrules are ceramic, but some are metal or plastic. And because they are spring-loaded, you have to make sure they are seated properly. If you have high loss, reconnect them to see if it makes a difference.It has a long 2.5mm diameter ferrule made of ceramic (zirconia), stainless alloy or plastic. It mates with a interconnection adapter and is latched into place by twisting to engage a spring-loaded bayonet socket.

Instead a fiber mating sleeve sits is very important. Unlike electronic connectors, most fiber optic connectors don’t have jack and plug design. Instead a fiber mating sleeve (adapter, or coupler) sits between two connectors. At the center of the adapter there is a cylindrical sleeve made of ceramic (zirconia) or phosphor bronze. Ferrules slide into the sleeve and mate to each other. The adapter body provides mechanism to hold the connector bodies such as snap-in, push-and-latch, twist-on or screwed-on. The total amount of insertion loss for fiber optic connectors should remain below 1 dB. Fiber alignment is the critical parameter in maintaining the total insertion loss below the required level. There is only a small amount of control over coupling loss resulting from fiber mismatches, because the loss results from inherent fiber properties.

Jfiberoptic as the main professional fiber optic cable manufacturer in china offer a various kinds of fiber optic connectors, FC Connectors, LC Connectors, SC Connectors, ST Connectors. You can buy fiber optic connection products on our store with your confidence. All of fiber optics supplies with high quality but low price.

Types of Fiber Optical Attenuator

Two types of fiber optic attenuators:

1. fixed value attenuators
2. variable optical attenuators.

Fixed value attenuators have fixed values that are specified by decibels. Their applications include telecommunication networks, optical fiber test facility, Lan(LAN) and CATV systems. For instance, a -3dB attenuator should reduce concentration of the output by 3 dB(50%). Fixed value attenuator’s attenuation value can’t be varied. The attenuation is expressed in dB. The operating wavelength for optical attenuators ought to be specified for that rated attenuation, because optical attenuation of a material varies with wavelength. Fixed value attenuators are comprised of two big groups: In-line type and connector type. In-line type appears like an ordinary fiber patch cable; it has a fiber cable terminated with two connectors which you’ll specify types. Connector type attenuator looks like a bulk head fiber connector, it has a male end and a female end. It mates to regular connectors of the identical type for example FC, ST, SC and LC.

Variable fiber optical attenuators come with a variety of designs. They’re general used for testing and measurement, but they also possess a wide usage in EDFAs for equalizing the sunshine power among different channels. One type of variable optical attenuator is made on the D-shaped fiber as a type of evanescent field device. If your bulk external material, whose refractive index is larger compared to mode effective index, replaces a part of the evanescent field reachable cladding, the mode can become leaky plus some from the optical power could be radiated. If the index from the external material could be changed with a controllable mean, with the effects for example thermo-optic, electro-optic, or acoustic-optic, a device with controllable attenuation is achievable.

What is Fiber Optic Attenuator

A fiber optic attenuator, also called an optical attenuator, simulates losing the could be caused by a long period of fiber. Typically, this device performs receiver testing. While an optical attenuator can simulate the optical loss of an extended period of fiber, it can’t accurately simulate the dispersion that would be caused by a long length of fiber.

Put it simply, for a fiber optic receiver, too much light can overload it and degrade the bit error ratio. In order to achieve the best bit error ratio (BER), the light power should be reduced. Fiber optic attenuators fit the requirement perfectly. This could happen when the transmitter delivers too much power for example once the transmitter is simply too near to the receiver.

Fiber optic attenuators are like your sunglasses, which absorbs the extra light energy and protect your eyes from being dazzled. Attenuators normally have a working wavelength range in which they absorb the sunshine energy equally.

An essential characteristic of a good fiber attenuator is that they should not reflect the light, instead, they should absorb the extra light without being damaged. Because the light power used in fiber optic communications are fairly low, they usually could be absorbed without noticeable damage to the attenuator itself.

Types of Optical Attenuators

Two types of fiber optic attenuators exist: fixed value attenuators and variable optical attenuators.

Fixed value attenuators have fixed values that are specified by decibels. Their applications include telecommunication networks, optical fiber test facility, Lan(LAN) and CATV systems. For instance, a -3dB attenuator should reduce concentration of the output by 3 dB(50%). Fixed value attenuator’s attenuation value can’t be varied. The attenuation is expressed in dB. The operating wavelength for optical attenuators ought to be specified for that rated attenuation, because optical attenuation of a material varies with wavelength. Fixed value attenuators are comprised of two big groups: In-line type and connector type. In-line type appears like an ordinary fiber patch cable; it has a fiber cable terminated with two connectors which you’ll specify types. Connector type attenuator looks like a bulk head fiber connector, it has a male end and a female end. It mates to regular connectors of the identical type for example FC, ST, SC and LC.

Variable optical attenuators come with a variety of designs. They’re general used for testing and measurement, but they also possess a wide usage in EDFAs for equalizing the sunshine power among different channels. One type of variable optical attenuator is made on the D-shaped fiber as a type of evanescent field device. If your bulk external material, whose refractive index is larger compared to mode effective index, replaces a part of the evanescent field reachable cladding, the mode can become leaky plus some from the optical power could be radiated. If the index from the external material could be changed with a controllable mean, with the effects for example thermo-optic, electro-optic, or acoustic-optic, a device with controllable attenuation is achievable.

Source: http://www.jfiberoptic.com

What are some distinct disadvantages of fiber-optic cables?

Some disadvantages of using fiber optic cables:

fiber cables are more expensive to install compared to conventional cables having conventional metal wire conductors
fiber-optic cables are more fragile than metal wire conductors, so they must have adequate and strong protective sheathing to suit the environment in which they are to be installed
fiber-optic cables have higher costs for their electronic end-terminals compared to the end-terminals needed for conventional cables having metal wire conductors
fiber-optic cables are more difficult to split: more electronic end-terminal units must be used than for cables using conventional metal wire conductors.

Some advantages of using fiber optic cables:

very high maximum effective bandwidth
very long maximum distances between end terminals so that the costs of having to install and maintain intermediate repeaters can be saved
freedom from electro-magnetic interference.

Conventional cables, having metal wire conductors, suffer from the opposite of each of those factors:

low maximum effective bandwidth
short maximum distances between end-terminals and between any intermediate repeaters, so the extra costs of having to install – and maintain – several intermediate repeaters must be planned-for
they are always at risk from electro-magnetic interference unless they are efficiently shielded at extra cost.