Monthly Archives: May 2013

Prysmian opens new fiber-optic cable plant in Romania

Cable maker Prysmian Group says it has a new fiber-optic cable production facility at its campus in Slatina, Romania. The new production capability will triple the factory’s fiber-optic cable capacity to 1.5 million km, with the potential to reach 3 million km.

Prysmian manufactures energy cable and copper cable as well as fiber cable at the 40-year-old Slatina factory, one of 24 production facilities the company operates worldwide. The site began producing fiber-optic cable in 2009. The plant comprises almost 100,000 m2 of space, 42,000 m2 of it covered, and employs more than 400 people.

“The investment in the new facility in Slatina is part of a major plan to further reinforce the Group’s competitiveness in this fast-changing market,” said Valerio Battista, CEO of the Prysmian Group. “Many developments are taking place in the current telecoms market. New players and services are appearing and evolution in broadband, double-play and triple-play services is dynamic. For this reason, as one of the major players in the telecom cable industry, Prysmian Group is continuously investing in this strategic sector in order to offer innovative technological solutions for the development of telecoms networks.”

Zayo boosts Indianapolis 500 small cell network with fiber-optic ring

Zayo Group reveals that it will deploy a dark fiber mobile backhaul infrastructure for a small cell wireless network at this year’s Indianapolis 500 in Indianapolis, IN. The fiber-optic network services provider already has installed a dark fiber ring for the track, which will improve wireless capacity and reliability during the race’s events. The fiber infrastructure will then remain in place to support mobile users.

The fiber optic cable will backhaul traffic from a distributed antenna system (DAS) deployed at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. The backhaul network includes a 23-mile fiber ring connecting an unidentified national carrier’s multiple points of presence and the speedway. Zayo asserts it completed the dark fiber ring in fewer than 90 days.

Zayo says it manages more than 540 fiber route miles in the Indianapolis metro area and supports service to more than 300 buildings on-net.

The Types of Fiber Optic Connector

Fiber optic connector is used to join optical fiber where a connect/disconnect capability is required. The basic connector unit is a connector assembly. A connector assembly consists of an adapter and two connector plugs. A variety of optical fiber connectors are available, but SC and LC connectors are the most common types of connectors on the market.

Different connectors are required for multimode, and for single-mode fibers. The example shown is a fiber ST connector. We supply professional fiber ST connetor sales. ST connector is the most popular connector for multimode networks, like most buildings and campuses. It has a bayonet mount and a long cylindrical ferrule to hold the fiber. Most ferrules are ceramic, but some are metal or plastic. And because they are spring-loaded, you have to make sure they are seated properly. If you have high loss, reconnect them to see if it makes a difference.It has a long 2.5mm diameter ferrule made of ceramic (zirconia), stainless alloy or plastic. It mates with a interconnection adapter and is latched into place by twisting to engage a spring-loaded bayonet socket.

Instead a fiber mating sleeve sits is very important. Unlike electronic connectors, most fiber optic connectors don’t have jack and plug design. Instead a fiber mating sleeve (adapter, or coupler) sits between two connectors. At the center of the adapter there is a cylindrical sleeve made of ceramic (zirconia) or phosphor bronze. Ferrules slide into the sleeve and mate to each other. The adapter body provides mechanism to hold the connector bodies such as snap-in, push-and-latch, twist-on or screwed-on. The total amount of insertion loss for fiber optic connectors should remain below 1 dB. Fiber alignment is the critical parameter in maintaining the total insertion loss below the required level. There is only a small amount of control over coupling loss resulting from fiber mismatches, because the loss results from inherent fiber properties.

Jfiberoptic as the main professional fiber optic cable manufacturer in china offer a various kinds of fiber optic connectors, FC Connectors, LC Connectors, SC Connectors, ST Connectors. You can buy fiber optic connection products on our store with your confidence. All of fiber optics supplies with high quality but low price.

Types of Fiber Optical Attenuator

Two types of fiber optic attenuators:

1. fixed value attenuators
2. variable optical attenuators.

Fixed value attenuators have fixed values that are specified by decibels. Their applications include telecommunication networks, optical fiber test facility, Lan(LAN) and CATV systems. For instance, a -3dB attenuator should reduce concentration of the output by 3 dB(50%). Fixed value attenuator’s attenuation value can’t be varied. The attenuation is expressed in dB. The operating wavelength for optical attenuators ought to be specified for that rated attenuation, because optical attenuation of a material varies with wavelength. Fixed value attenuators are comprised of two big groups: In-line type and connector type. In-line type appears like an ordinary fiber patch cable; it has a fiber cable terminated with two connectors which you’ll specify types. Connector type attenuator looks like a bulk head fiber connector, it has a male end and a female end. It mates to regular connectors of the identical type for example FC, ST, SC and LC.

Variable fiber optical attenuators come with a variety of designs. They’re general used for testing and measurement, but they also possess a wide usage in EDFAs for equalizing the sunshine power among different channels. One type of variable optical attenuator is made on the D-shaped fiber as a type of evanescent field device. If your bulk external material, whose refractive index is larger compared to mode effective index, replaces a part of the evanescent field reachable cladding, the mode can become leaky plus some from the optical power could be radiated. If the index from the external material could be changed with a controllable mean, with the effects for example thermo-optic, electro-optic, or acoustic-optic, a device with controllable attenuation is achievable.

What is Fiber Optic Attenuator

A fiber optic attenuator, also called an optical attenuator, simulates losing the could be caused by a long period of fiber. Typically, this device performs receiver testing. While an optical attenuator can simulate the optical loss of an extended period of fiber, it can’t accurately simulate the dispersion that would be caused by a long length of fiber.

Put it simply, for a fiber optic receiver, too much light can overload it and degrade the bit error ratio. In order to achieve the best bit error ratio (BER), the light power should be reduced. Fiber optic attenuators fit the requirement perfectly. This could happen when the transmitter delivers too much power for example once the transmitter is simply too near to the receiver.

Fiber optic attenuators are like your sunglasses, which absorbs the extra light energy and protect your eyes from being dazzled. Attenuators normally have a working wavelength range in which they absorb the sunshine energy equally.

An essential characteristic of a good fiber attenuator is that they should not reflect the light, instead, they should absorb the extra light without being damaged. Because the light power used in fiber optic communications are fairly low, they usually could be absorbed without noticeable damage to the attenuator itself.

Types of Optical Attenuators

Two types of fiber optic attenuators exist: fixed value attenuators and variable optical attenuators.

Fixed value attenuators have fixed values that are specified by decibels. Their applications include telecommunication networks, optical fiber test facility, Lan(LAN) and CATV systems. For instance, a -3dB attenuator should reduce concentration of the output by 3 dB(50%). Fixed value attenuator’s attenuation value can’t be varied. The attenuation is expressed in dB. The operating wavelength for optical attenuators ought to be specified for that rated attenuation, because optical attenuation of a material varies with wavelength. Fixed value attenuators are comprised of two big groups: In-line type and connector type. In-line type appears like an ordinary fiber patch cable; it has a fiber cable terminated with two connectors which you’ll specify types. Connector type attenuator looks like a bulk head fiber connector, it has a male end and a female end. It mates to regular connectors of the identical type for example FC, ST, SC and LC.

Variable optical attenuators come with a variety of designs. They’re general used for testing and measurement, but they also possess a wide usage in EDFAs for equalizing the sunshine power among different channels. One type of variable optical attenuator is made on the D-shaped fiber as a type of evanescent field device. If your bulk external material, whose refractive index is larger compared to mode effective index, replaces a part of the evanescent field reachable cladding, the mode can become leaky plus some from the optical power could be radiated. If the index from the external material could be changed with a controllable mean, with the effects for example thermo-optic, electro-optic, or acoustic-optic, a device with controllable attenuation is achievable.

Source: http://www.jfiberoptic.com

What are some distinct disadvantages of fiber-optic cables?

Some disadvantages of using fiber optic cables:

fiber cables are more expensive to install compared to conventional cables having conventional metal wire conductors
fiber-optic cables are more fragile than metal wire conductors, so they must have adequate and strong protective sheathing to suit the environment in which they are to be installed
fiber-optic cables have higher costs for their electronic end-terminals compared to the end-terminals needed for conventional cables having metal wire conductors
fiber-optic cables are more difficult to split: more electronic end-terminal units must be used than for cables using conventional metal wire conductors.

Some advantages of using fiber optic cables:

very high maximum effective bandwidth
very long maximum distances between end terminals so that the costs of having to install and maintain intermediate repeaters can be saved
freedom from electro-magnetic interference.

Conventional cables, having metal wire conductors, suffer from the opposite of each of those factors:

low maximum effective bandwidth
short maximum distances between end-terminals and between any intermediate repeaters, so the extra costs of having to install – and maintain – several intermediate repeaters must be planned-for
they are always at risk from electro-magnetic interference unless they are efficiently shielded at extra cost.

How does a fiber optic cable work?

A fiber-optic cable is composed of many very thin strands of coated glass or plastic fibers that transmit light through the process of “cladding,” in which total internal reflection of light is achieved by using material that has a lower refractive index. Once light enters the fiber, the cladding layer inside it prevents light loss as the beam of light zigzags inside the glass core. Glass fibers can transmit messages or images by directing beams of light inside itself over very short or very long distances up to 13,000 miles (20,917 kilometers) without significant distortion. The pattern of light waves forms a code that carries a message. At the receiving end, the light beams are converted back into electric current and decoded. Uses include telecommunications medical fiber-optic viewers, such as endoscopes and fiberscopes, to see internal organs; fiber-optic message devices in aircraft and space vehicles; and fiber-optic connections in automotive lighting systems.

Fiber-optic cables have greater “bandwidth”: they can carry much more data than metal cable. Because fiber optics is based on light beams, the transmissions are more impervious to electrical noise and can also be carried greater distances before fading. The cables are thinner than metal wires. Fiber-optic cable delivers data in digital code instead of an analog signal, the delivery method of metal cables; computers are structured for digital, so there is a natural symbiosis. The main disadvantage is cost: fiber optics are much more expensive than traditional metal cable.

To understand how a fiber optic cable works, imagine an immensely long drinking straw or flexible plastic pipe. For example, imagine a pipe that is several miles long. Now imagine that the inside surface of the pipe has been coated with a perfect mirror. Now imagine that you are looking into one end of the pipe. Several miles away at the other end, a friend turns on a flashlight and shines it into the pipe. Because the interior of the pipe is a perfect mirror, the flashlight’s light will reflect off the sides of the pipe (even though the pipe may curve and twist) and you will see it at the other end. If your friend were to turn the flashlight on and off in a morse code fashion, your friend could communicate with you through the pipe. That is the essence of a fiber optic cable.

Related fiber optic cables – fiber optic patch cord, also called fiber optic patch cable, is a fiber optic cable terminated with fiber optic connectors on both ends. It has two major application areas: computer work station to outlet and fiber optic patch panels or optical cross connect distribution center. Fiber optic patch cables are for indoor applications only.

What is the difference between a single mode and multi mode fiber optic connector?

There are 2 major differences one color code. single mode will be white or yellow. multimode will be black or tan. 2nd the hole in the connector ferrel for the fiber. fiber is 125 microns. in a single mode connector the opening is 126 microns. multimode is 127/128.
Single Mode cable is a single strand (most applications use 2 fibers) of glass fiber with a diameter of 8.3 to 10 microns that has one mode of transmission. Single Mode Fiber with a relatively narrow diameter, through which only one mode will propagate typically 1310 or 1550nm. Carries higher bandwidth than multimode fiber, but requires a light source with a narrow spectral width. Synonyms mono-mode optical fiber, single-mode fiber, single-mode optical waveguide, uni-mode fiber.
Single Modem fiber is used in many applications where data is sent at multi-frequency (WDM Wave-Division-Multiplexing) so only one cable is needed – (single-mode on one single fiber)
Single-mode fiber gives you a higher transmission rate and up to 50 times more distance than multimode, but it also costs more. Single-mode fiber has a much smaller core than multimode. The small core and single light-wave virtually eliminate any distortion that could result from overlapping light pulses, providing the least signal attenuation and the highest transmission speeds of any fiber cable type.

Single-mode optical fiber is an optical fiber in which only the lowest order bound mode can propagate at the wavelength of interest typically 1300 to 1320nm.
Multi-Mode cable has a little bit bigger diameter, with a common diameters in the 50-to-100 micron range for the light carry component (in the US the most common size is 62.5um). Most applications in which Multi-mode fiber is used, 2 fibers are used (WDM is not normally used on multi-mode fiber). POF is a newer plastic-based cable which promises performance similar to glass cable on very short runs, but at a lower cost.
Multimode fiber gives you high bandwidth at high speeds (10 to 100MBS – Gigabit to 275m to 2km) over medium distances. Light waves are dispersed into numerous paths, or modes, as they travel through the cable’s core typically 850 or 1300nm. Typical multimode fiber core diameters are 50, 62.5, and 100 micrometers. However, in long cable runs (greater than 3000 feet [914.4 meters), multiple paths of light can cause signal distortion at the receiving end, resulting in an unclear and incomplete data transmission so designers now call for single mode fiber in new applications using Gigabit and beyond.

Multimode& Singlemode fiber are the five types of fiber in common use. Both fibers are 125 microns in outside diameter – a micron is one one-millionth of a meter & 125 microns is 0.005 inches- a bit larger than the typical human hair. Multimode fiber has light travelling in the core in lots of rays, called modes. It’s a bigger core (always 62.5 microns, but sometimes 50 microns) & is used with LED sources at wavelengths of 850 & 1300 nm for slower local area networks (LANs) & lasers at 850 & 1310 nm for networks jogging at gigabits per second or more. Singlemode fiber has a much smaller core, only about 9 microns, so that the light travels in one ray. It is used for telephony & CATV with laser sources at 1300 & 1550 nm. Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) is large core (about 1mm) fiber that can only be used for short, low speed networks.
Step index multimode was the first fiber design but is slow for most makes use of, due to the dispersion caused by the different path lengths of the various modes. Step index fiber is rare – only POF makes use of a step index design today.
Graded index multimode fiber makes use of variations in the composition of the glass in the core to compensate for the different path lengths of the modes. It offers hundreds of times more bandwidth than step index fiber – up to about 2 gigahertz.
Singlemode fiber shrinks the core down so small that the light can only travel in one ray. This increases the bandwidth to infinity – but it is practically limited to about 100,000 gigahertz – that is still a lot!

Multimode& Singlemode fiber are the five types of fiber in common use. Both fibers are 125 microns in outside diameter – a micron is one one-millionth of a meter & 125 microns is 0.005 inches- a bit larger than the typical human hair. Multimode fiber has light travelling in the core in lots of rays, called modes. It’s a bigger core (always 62.5 microns, but sometimes 50 microns) & is used with LED sources at wavelengths of 850 & 1300 nm for slower local area networks (LANs) & lasers at 850 & 1310 nm for networks jogging at gigabits per second or more. Singlemode fiber has a much smaller core, only about 9 microns, so that the light travels in one ray. It is used for telephony & CATV with laser sources at 1300 & 1550 nm. Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) is large core (about 1mm) fiber that can only be used for short, low speed networks.
Step index multimode was the first fiber design but is slow for most makes use of, due to the dispersion caused by the different path lengths of the various modes. Step index fiber is rare – only POF makes use of a step index design today.
Graded index multimode fiber makes use of variations in the composition of the glass in the core to compensate for the different path lengths of the modes. It offers hundreds of times more bandwidth than step index fiber – up to about 2 gigahertz.
Singlemode fiber shrinks the core down so small that the light can only travel in one ray. This increases the bandwidth to infinity – but it is practically limited to about 100,000 gigahertz – that is still a lot!

Source: fiber cable manufacturer

Fiber Optic Patch Cable Buying Guide

Fiber optic patch cords are fiber optic cables used to attach one device to another for signal routing. It compresses in the entire electric network plank and room that wall plank and the flexibility cabinet needs. And today I would like to introduce you fiber optic patch cable.

fiber optic patch cable is with the fiber optic connectors, are upgrade version of the former MPO. MTP is with better mechanical and better performance compared with MPO. Both the MTP and MPO series cables are multi fiber connectors. There are many fiber optic channels in each single connector. Due to the feature of such multi fiber, these connectors need to use with multi fiber cables, especially the ribbon multi fiber optic cables.

Typical MTP/MPO fiber optic patch cord assemblies like MTP/MPO to 8 LC, MTP/MPO to 12 MT-RJ ,etc. Both single mode and multi-mode MPO ribbon patch cables are available and they are manufactured with various color-coded housings for easy identification. MPO fiber optic patch cord adopts precision molded MT ferrules, metal guide pins and appropriate housing to provide optical fiber alignment. The push-pull design is utilized for easy mating and removal.

MTP/MPO are usually used in ribbon fiber optic patch cords or ribbon fan out multi fiber assemblies. Made by multi-fiber ribbon materials, the MPO ribbon patch cable is an ideal connecting tool for telecommunication system, testing instruments, LAN and WAN systems, FTTX, etc. The MPO ribbon patch cable features removable housing, allowing easy replacement of pin clamps, ferrule clearing and connector repolishing. Connection integrity is assured by the spring-action side latch housing. The ribbon fiber optic cables features multi fiberglass inside each single jacket ,MTP/MPO are also multi fiberglass core inside each single connector, which means, there are several fiberglass connections in each single MTP/MPO fiber optic patch cord.

Jiafu fiber optic cable manufactures a full line of fiber optic patch cables. There are LC, SC, ST, FC, E2000, E2000, DIN, D4, SMA and DIN Fiber Optic Patch Cables, which classified by connector types. In addition to standard patch cords, JiaFu also provides several kinds of specialty patch cords, such as ribbon fan-out cords, MTP / MPO patch cords, mode conditioning patch cords, armored patch cord and water proof pigtails.

Through there are so many types of fiber optic patch cords, I am going to suggest you a buying guide to helping you select the correct fiber patch cable that meets your demand.

1.Choose fiber optic connectors ST, SC, LC, FC, SC/APC, LC/APC, FC/APC, FDDI, SMA, MTP, MPO, MTP/APC, MPO/APC.

2.Choose Fiber Mode, Single Mode 9/125µm OS1, Multimode 62.5/125µm OM1, Multimode 50/125µm OM2, Multimode 50/125µm OM3 10Gigabit, Multimode 50/125µm OM4, Multimode 100/140, Multimode, 200/230.

3.Choose Fiber Cable Construction Type, Simplex fiber optic cable (A single fiber), Duplex fiber optic cable (2 fibers in a single cable, Zip Cord), Multi-Fiber cables, custom configurations, common are 4 fiber, 6fiber, 8fiber, 12 fiber, 24 fiber, 48 fiber, 72 fiber, 144 fiber, 256 fiber. Higher fiber counts are normally terminated as a MTP/MPO Trunk cables, using MTP/MPO connectors.

4.Choose Fiber Cable Diameter, In stock/Most common are 3.0mm Jacket OD. Optional are 2.0mm, 1.8mm, 1.6mm.

5.Choose Fiber Optic Cable Jacket Color. Industry Standard fiber optic cable jacket colors are. SM Yellow, MM 62.5 Orange, MM 50 OM2 Orange, MM 50 10Gb OM3 Aqua/Light Blue, Optional are Blue, Orange, Green Brown, Gray/Slate, White, Red, Black, Yellow, Purple, Pink, Aqua.

6.Choose Jacket material type, PVC jacket, Riser jacket, Plenum Jacket, Armored Jacket.

7.Choose fiber patch cord length option, normally measured in Meters. Optional lengths, CM, mm, Inches, Foot, KM, Mile.

The Advantages And Disadvantages Of The PLC Optical Power Splitter

Planar optical waveguide technology is the optical waveguide branch devices with semiconductor process, the function of the shunt on the chip, to achieve the above shunt up to 1×32 on a chip, the chip at both ends, respectively, coupled to encapsulate the input and outputend multi-channel fiber array.

PLC fiber optic splitters are used to distribute or combine optical signals, which are based on planar lightwave circuit technology and provides a low cost light distribution solution with small form factor and high reliability.

The PLC fiber Splitter contains no electronics and uses no power. They are the network elements that put the passive in Passive Optical Network and are available in a variety of split ratios, including 1:4, 1:8, and 1:16, 1:32, 1:64 and 1:128 etc.

The main advantages:

(1) wear and tear on the transmission wavelength of light is not sensitive to meet the needs the transmission of different wavelengths.

(2) spectrophotometric uniform, the signal can be assigned to the user.

(3) The compact structure, small size, can be installed directly in a variety of transfer of the box, without specially designed to stay a great deal of installation space.

(4) single device shunt channel can reach more than 32.

(5) multi-channel, low cost, points more and more large ones, the more obvious cost advantage.

The main drawback:

(1) complex device fabrication process, high technical threshold, the current chip monopolized by several foreign companies, domestic enterprises to be able to the production of large quantities of packaging and only a small few.

(2) relative to the higher cost of fused cone splitter, especially in the low-channel splitter at a disadvantage.

Source: Fiber optic cable supplier, website: http://www.jfiberoptic.com